1. Defects in external dimensions:
(1 Dimensional tolerance: refers to the actual dimensions of non-ferrous metal processed products that exceed the allowable deviation range specified by the standard.
(2 Uneven thickness: refers to the uneven thickness of the cross section and vertical section of the plate, strip, and foil.
(3 Uneven wall thickness: refers to the inconsistent wall thickness of the pipe in all aspects on the same cross section.
(4 Ellipse roundness: ellipse refers to products (tubes, rods, wire rods, wires, etc.) that have different diameters on the same cross-section. Roundness is expressed by the difference between the largest and smallest diameters on the same cross-section.
(5 Uneven wire diameter: refers to the unequal wire diameter in the longitudinal direction.
(6 Wave corrugation: refers to the undulating wavy curve of the board, strip, foil, shape, and wire along the length, which makes the surface lose its flatness. Waves are unilateral, bilateral, and sometimes appear in the middle of the surface. Continuous waves and discontinuous waves appear in two ways.
(7 Cracked edge: refers to continuous or intermittent cracks of different sizes on the edge. In severe cases, it is tooth-shaped or intermittent triangular.
(8 Hemming: refers to the part of the edge of the sheet being curled up and tightened. The two or one side of the strip is rolled up in a groove shape or slightly curled and tightened locally.
(9 Bend: refers to the unevenness of the tube, rod, and profile along the axial (longitudinal) direction, sometimes wavy.
(10 Side-curved: fingerboards, strips, and foils are bent to one side along the length direction, and the edges are not in a straight line, and in severe cases, they are in the shape of a sickle.
(11 "8" shape: refers to the disorder when the wire is removed from the reel and twisted into a "8" shape.
(12 Twisting: Fingers, tube edges, profiles and bars are twisted around their longitudinal axis, forming twists or spirals in severe cases.
(13 Cut oblique: After sawing of pipes, rods, timbers, etc., the end face is not perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.
(14 Uneven end faces: refers to the occurrence of string movement between the two ends of the foil roll and the layers, so that the end faces of the foil roll are not even.
(15 Unformed: Refers to the protrusions, fillets, rib tops, etc. of the die forgings that are not completely filled, resulting in insufficient size.
2. External defects:
(1 Crack: refers to continuous or intermittent horizontal or longitudinal cracks on the surface or corners (profiles) of non-ferrous processed materials. Cracks have various manifestations, some are obvious, some are not obvious, and can develop in severe cases. Cracks or cracks. Some cracks are hot brittle cracks, some are cold cracks. Some are partial, some are periodic. Foil and soft products are more obvious. Forgings are generally forward cracking or shear cracking, and the end faces are generally Cracked in the center.
(2 Wrinkles: Refers to the rough, uneven, continuous wrinkles on the surface of the magnesium alloy profile, or the local or continuous vertical or horizontal dense micro wrinkles on the surface of the rod (tube), which makes the surface of the rod (tube) rough.
(3 Pocked surface: refers to the surface of the processed material presents a small uneven point-like rough surface, the protrusions are sharper, have a prickly feel, and are distributed locally or in continuous pieces. In severe cases, it resembles an orange peel.
(4 Bubbles: refers to small bumps with irregular distribution, different sizes, different shapes, and rounded periphery on the surface of the processed material. If cut along the bumps, the section can be found to be layered. The bubbles have a single distribution, forming Continuously distributed in strings or pieces.
(5 Skinning: Refers to the thin layer with obvious separation of metal structure on the processed surface, showing strips, tongues, fish scales or nail-like lifted flakes. Some are connected to the metal body, and it is not easy to press on the surface. Falling off. The peeled section is in the shape of black lines or black bands. In severe cases, there are generally visible inclusions at the separation.
(6 Folding: refers to the double-layer metal that is folded on the surface of the processed material along the rolling direction, and the crease on the cross section forms a certain inclination angle with the surface. The folding is generally straight (the pipe is generally distributed along the spiral direction, and there are also Partial or continuous distribution in a sawtooth shape.
(7 Indentation: refers to the surface of the finished product is embedded with metal or non-metallic dirt (dust, oil, etc.) that is obviously different from the base metal. It is distributed irregularly in dots, strips or flakes, and is scratched. A certain depth of depression is left on the back surface.
(8 Transverse wave: refers to the fine or coarse horizontal stripe print on the surface along the vertical rolling direction, like a washboard. The transverse wave is localized, continuous or periodic. When it is severe, it will feel obvious when it is touched by hand.
(9 Scratch: It refers to the irregular longitudinal and lateral traces that can be seen on the bottom of the groove due to mechanical damage on the surface of the processed material. It is partially or continuously distributed on the surface in strips, sheets or arcs. It is customary to use Scratches in the form of flakes, the deeper scratches are called ditching, the smaller scratches are called ditching, and the scratches that cause "flesh" on the surface are called scratches.
(10 Bumping: refers to the surface of the processed material being touched, bumped, knocked, smashed, etc. mechanically by foreign objects, causing local damage to the surface
(11 Crease: refers to the partial irregular folds formed on the surface of the thin material.
(12 Indentation: Refers to the surface of the processed material with different shapes, different sizes, regular or irregular, clustered or locally distributed point-like depressions.
(13 Roll printing: refers to the impression of strips, blocks or dots on the surface of plates, strips, foils, bars, continuous or periodic, convex or concave impressions. The impression is brighter. Or darker, with uneven feeling when touched.
(14 Oil stains: refers to the continuous or discontinuous traces of dots, strips and flakes formed by the drying of oil or oily substances on the surface of the processed material. The oil stains make the surface of the material lose its original color, and its color is due to The metal varies.
(15 Water mark: refers to the trace left by the evaporation and drying of the residual water on the surface of the product. It is continuously or discontinuously present on the surface of the product in dots, strips or flakes, causing the surface to lose its original color.
(16 Acid stains: there are irregular residual acid corrosion stains on the surface of fingerboards, strips, bars, etc. The surface loses its original metallic luster.
(17 Straightening marks: When the finger tube and rod are straightened by roller (or pressure straightening), the surface shows spiral marks or relatively large round and concave defects. The spiral marks of roller straightening products are different in light and heavy, and they are so light that they do not feel To the weight of the diameter is out of tolerance.
(18 Scratch marks: refers to the groove marks on the surface of the wire along the longitudinal direction.
(19 Foil surface imprints: various imprints, such as pits, roll marks, pits, bumps, etc., often appear on the surface of the foil. Some are raised on one side and recessed on the other side, and some have intermittent or periodic imprints. .
(20 Burr: refers to the sharp and thin burr on the end (edge) or surface of the processed material.
(21 Ears: refers to the surface of wire rods and rolled (forged) rods. There is a longitudinal extension (along the hole and forging direction) at the groove roll gap (or at the position corresponding to the groove opening). Up. There are unilateral, bilateral, continuous and discontinuous
(22 Oxidation color: refers to the part or all of the surface of the processed material is oxidized to form a variety of different oxidation colors, which are generally darker than the metal body. The oxides generated by different materials are also different, and their colors are different.
(23 Corrosion: refers to the chemical and electrochemical interaction between the surface of the processed material and the external corrosive medium, resulting in local corrosion, which causes the surface to generate corrosion products with different colors. Generally, it is distributed on the surface in spots or flakes. Because of this corrosion Occurs on the surface, so it is also called "surface corrosion".
(24 Adhesion: After the tape and foil are annealed, the points, lines, and surfaces of the contact parts between the layers are bonded to each other. The bonded parts cannot be expanded freely. After being opened, there will be adhesion marks on the surface. .
(25 Pinholes: refers to the tiny holes scattered or clustered on the surface of the tube and foil. The general difference is that the pinholes are small and the holes are larger. The pinholes are visible and transparent to light.
(26 Wrinkled skin: refers to the small longitudinal or oblique local ridges on the surface of the foil, which are one or several smooth grooves. The direction is generally the same as the rolling direction, commonly known as longitudinal wrinkles.
(27 Spot scar: refers to the small block, strip or film-like defect trace on the surface of the pipe. Sometimes it can be seen, but it is not felt by the hand.
(28 Pine dendritic pattern: during the rolling process of aluminum and aluminum alloy plates (foil), regular pine dendritic patterns appear on the surface. In severe cases, the surface will be uneven. This pattern of aluminum foil is also called hemp, which often appears in The surface of the foil with a thickness of 0.03MM or more.
3. Internal defects:
(1) Overburning: refers to the remelted co-wafer ball on the high-magnification test piece of the processed material, the grain boundary is locally widened, and the grain boundary has a remelted triangle. There may be blistering, sweating, tearing, and corner loss in severe overheating.
(2) Shrinkage: It refers to the defects or tapered holes that are visible to the naked eye that break the continuity of the metal with a certain distribution pattern on the fracture of the end of the extruded tube, the bar or the low-power test piece. On the low-magnification test piece of the profile, there are visible continuous or discontinuous black strips or dots at the edge of the profile, a type or two shrinkage, and a hole near the center—a type shrinkage. However, the cross section of the wire shows the delamination of oxidation color and dirt.
(3) Shrinkage cavity: refers to the hole in the cross section of forged and rolled bars* near the nozzle of the ingot, and is symmetrical to the conical space of the center line of the hole
(4) Shrinkage residual: refers to the partial continuous looseness or small holes in the section of the wire rod.
(5) Stomata: refers to the irregularly bright cavities on the low-magnification test piece or fracture of the processed material.
(6) Looseness: refers to the dense and small needle-like pores on the low-power test piece or fracture of the tube or bar, and the cross-sectional structure is loose.
(7) Internal cracks: Refers to cracks in rolled rods and wires.
(8) Quenching cracks: refers to the network cracks that crack along the coarse-grained grain boundaries on the low-magnification test pieces of quenched rods and profiles, gradually deepening from the edge to the inside.
(9) Cracking: Refers to the integrity of the wire rod itself being destroyed, divided into two or more layers, with a black line or black band in section, and inclusions in the layered area.
(10) Poor welding: refers to the profile extruded with a tongue die, and the metal at the weld on the low-power test piece is discontinuous.
(11) Delamination: refers to the appearance of black lines or black bands on the sections of plates, strips, tubes, and bars, which severely separates the product into two or more layers. Generally, there is no regular distribution, and there are inclusions in the stratification.
(12) Layer formation: refers to the continuous or intermittent delamination phenomenon under the skin on the low-magnification test piece of the tube, rod, and profile. It is generally distributed regularly, and the extruded end is deep, and gradually disappears forward.
(13) Inclusions: refers to metal or non-metallic inclusions that are obviously different from the base metal on the section or surface of the processed material. Generally, it is embedded in the metal matrix or distributed on the surface of the product in dots, strips, or blocks.
(14) Slag inclusion: refers to the inclusions on the low-magnification test piece of the product that show irregular edges and hairs, generally black, and look like black lumps or dots when viewed from the fracture.
(15) Intermetallic compounds: Refers to the low-power test pieces of tubes, rods, and profiles, showing neatly bordered blocks, point-shaped aggregates, viewed from the fracture, showing bright-colored blocks or needles.
(16) Density segregation: uneven mixing of aluminum alloy melt is easy to produce density segregation, which is caused when processed into wire
(17) Oxide film: refers to a silver-gray, light gray, yellow-brown, and dark brown flaky oxide film on the low-magnification test piece of aluminum alloy.
(18) Large grains: Refers to the local coarse grains on the low-magnification test piece. The fracture of the large grain area is very rough.
(19) Coarse grains: The grain size of plates, strips, etc. exceeds the allowable range specified by the corresponding standards. It is said that the grains are coarse. Soft products of copper and aluminum alloy are most prone to such defects.
(20) Coarse crystal ring: refers to the obvious coarse crystal grain area along the periphery on the low power test piece of rod and profile. When the bar is extruded with multiple holes, it is on one side, and it forms a ring when extruded with a single hole.
(21) Bright crystal grains: refers to the crystal grains that are brighter than the base metal after being etched on the low-magnification test pieces of rods and profiles.
(22) Uneven hardness: refers to the uneven hardness of one part of the foil and the other part, and the surface has undulations after polishing.
(23) Insufficient elasticity of the foil: the electrolytic copper foil feels soft to the touch, and has poor recovery performance after folding, which is called insufficient elasticity of the foil.